By Daniel Nairn
Wednesday, May 8, 2009
Albemarle County has been working toward concentrating new development into
designated growth areas
for many years, but proposed state regulations could force a change in plans. The Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation (DCR) has proposed a new set of stormwater management guidelines that could have the unintended consequence of promoting low-density rural development over more compact forms of growth.
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At least, that’s the conclusion reached by both Mark Graham, Albemarle County Director of Community Development, and County Engineer Glenn Brooks. They made their comments to the Albemarle County Planning Commission during a work session on May 5, 2009. Their concerns were echoed by at least one Commissioner.
“The County needs to take proactive steps now to defend their [comprehensive] plan, the forms and the densities, if this program gets enacted, otherwise we’re not going to see development take place in the growth areas the way it’s being proposed, said Commissioner Don Franco (Rio).
The purpose of the new DCR regulations is to preserve streams, rivers, and ultimately the Chesapeake Bay by decreasing the level of pollutants entering the waterways through stormwater run-off. DCR has been under a high level of pressure from the General Assembly to make more progress toward improving Virginia’s water quality, and the new rules are intended to add some regulatory force behind these goals.
is complex, but the basic strategy is to lower the threshold of nutrients allowed to enter waterways and increase the scope of projects to be evaluated.
Much of the responsibility for implementing the new requirements will be passed on to the local level. Albemarle County and the City of Charlottesville will be required to adopt a stormwater management program in compliance with these regulations. The local governments will be assessed a hefty fine for any violations, which, as Graham says, is the first time a “hammer” has been held over localities for stormwater management. Because of the complexity of the requirements, Graham said administration and enforcement could be very labor-intensive. The increased fees will be collected by the local governments and shared among local and state governments to cover the administrative costs.
Graham and Brooks both recognize the importance of managing water quality, but said they are critical of the particular approach DCR is taking.
“The state, I think, is fairly naive about this,” Brooks said. “I don’t think they’ve had a hands-on approach with a lot of these scenarios.” He argues that, however complex the formulas for compliance are, they cannot fit all of the cases that engineers deal with on a regular basis. Furthermore, the sheer complexity could lead to confusion, “gaming” the system for economic advantage, and compromise on many projects. Brooks claims the current program isn’t working, and he does not understand why they would expand upon a faulty model.
Graham does not see this policy as compatible with Albemarle County’s growth management aspirations. He says, “it’s much, much easier and cheaper to comply with the requirements in [sprawling development] than in a tight, neighborhood model form of development.” Since grandfathering is still unresolved, it is at least possible that some
developments already approved
by the County may not be able to be built as planned under the new regulations.
In response to these challenges, the state has passed enabling legislation to allow localities to set up a Nutrient Exchange Program, which would function much like the
Transfer of Development Rights
systems that have been discussed in Albemarle County in recent years. Developments that create an unacceptable water quality impact may purchase “stormwater offsets” from another property within the same tributary watershed. Also, a development can meet the standards by incorporating something from a select list of Best Management Practices, which includes green roofs, rainwater collection devices, and permeable pavement. While these qualifications do open up the possibility of development within urbanized areas, there would still exist a substantial cost differential between urban and rural development. County planners are worried that economic incentives may push development outward.
The effective date for these regulations is expected to be July 2010, after which local governments will have approximately 15 months to develop their new stormwater management programs.
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