By Sean Tubbs & Brian Wheeler

Charlottesville Tomorrow

Tuesday, April 13, 2010

In 1974, the

Charlottesville City Council

made a decision that led to the transformation of the city’s central business district. To generate more business downtown, Council voted to convert East Main Street into a pedestrian mall.  The Charlottesville

Downtown Mall

was dedicated in 1976.

In 2010, three of the people who were on Council in 1974 gathered in CitySpace to talk about the early days of the mall as part of an exhibit sponsored by the

Charlottesville Community Design Center


Charles Barbour


Francis Fife

, and

George Gilliam

all spoke at a panel discussion held Monday.

“All of us had expressed interest in the idea of doing something dramatic with downtown,” Gilliam said. “We all knew we needed to do something in the heart of the city to save it.”

The downtown core of the city was losing customers to suburban shopping centers such as the

Barracks Road Shopping Center

.  Even though the city annexed that property in 1963, many city elders had concerns about the future of the central city and its property values.

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“There was a legitimate fear that the core of the city was going to end up like… so many cities that had just given way to the suburbs,” Gilliam said.

Though he was a supporter of the idea from the beginning, Gilliam was not permitted to actually vote on the project. He said opponents of the project claimed that he, Fife and fellow Councilor

Jill Rinehart

all had conflicts of interest because they had associations with banks that had a financial stake in the future of downtown.

“It turned out that if you made more than $5,000 a year and if you worked on a business on the mall, that was one of the things that excluded you,” said Fife, who was vice president of the now-defunct People’s Bank at the time.

Only Barbour and the late

Mitchell Van Yahres

were able to vote on the issue. Barbour was the first African-American to serve as Mayor.

“This mall belongs to all of us because a black man and a white man [approved it],” Barbour said.

“We pretty well knew it was going to be politically unpopular because big changes always are hard for people to get used to,” Gilliam said. He said the $4.1 million price tag created “heated opposition” to the project, but Council and a special group called the

Central City Commission

spent a year and a half trying to make sure the mall would be supported by the community.

“We decided that if we were going to do it, we were going to have to do it in a first class way,” Gilliam said.

The firm Lawrence Halprin & Associates was hired to conduct a retreat to help Council and members of the Central City Commission develop a plan to create a new public space for downtown. Gilliam recalled that Halprin said at the time that it would take as long as a decade for the mall to become successful.

At the panel discussion, current Mayor

Dave Norris

pointed out that many communities that created pedestrian malls later abandoned them. He asked why Charlottesville decided to stick it out, even though the ten-year transition period that Halprin said it would take took a lot longer.

“After we built it, we were stuck [with it],” Barbour said.  “We couldn’t take the brakes off and start all over again… [we hoped] that things would improve, and they have.”

Today, Barbour said he would like to see the return of a department store to downtown. However, Gilliam told the audience he doubted that would happen any time soon.


    01:00 – Moderator Sarita Hermann, UVA Architectural History graduate student

    02:15 – Hermann describes the role Jill Rinehart played

    04:20 – Francis Fife introduces himself to the audience

    05:20 – Charles Barbour introduces himself to the audience

    06:30 – George Gilliam introduces himself to the audience

    08:30  – Barbour describes history of public swimming pools in the city

    09:10 – Hermann asks Barbour to comment on the period of desegregation in Charlottesville

    12:00 – Julian R. Graves makes a comment about racial segregation at the Fry’s Spring Beach Club

    13:30 – Hermann asks how the idea for the Mall came about

    16:20 – Gilliam describes the financial context of the need to recuse himself

    19:40 – Barbour describes how a retreat lead to the idea of a potential “half” mall.

    21:30 – Hermann asks why Lawrence Halprin’s firm was hired

    28:30 – Gilliam describes the role played by Mary Ann Elwood in building apartments downtown

    29:30 – Sally Thomas asks question about the bricks being applied in stages

    30:30 – Peter Kleeman draws parallels between opposition to mall and opposition to Meadowcreek Parkway

    32:00 – Kleeman asks follow-up question about Chamber’s role in original mall discussion

    34:21 – Julian R. Graves comments on the “affordability” of stores downtown today

    35:00 – Virginia Germino asks question about the types of stores that could survive

    41:00 – Comments from Beth Meyer, an urban planning professor at UVA, who points out there are fewer benches than originally envisioned

    43:45 – Question from Mayor Dave Norris about why Charlottesville has  been able to retain its pedestrian mall

    47:30 – Kleeman asks if any non-linear concepts were discussed

    48:30 – Kurt Burkhart of the Charlottesville Albemarle Convention & Visitors Bureau asks what is needed to sustain viability of downtown mall?

    51:30 – Discussion turns to the abandoned Landmark Hotel project

    53:40 – Meyer asks question about what happened when a fire occurred at the location known today as Central Place (the NE corner of Second Street East & Main Street)

    57:10 – Kleeman asks if historic preservation was considered at the time

    1:02:10 – Norris asks panelists’ opinion on idea of adding security cameras to the mall